Every website has an IP address, and it's the IP address by which search engines locate websites. An IP address is the internet address of any device that connected to the internet. The IP address is a numerical address and consists of four sets of numbers and each set can range from 0 to 255 and the sets are separated by a (.). For example, 188.8.131.52 is a valid IP address.
This IP addressing system was designed and implemented in the early years of the internet. If this addressing system were not made a standard and used for providing numeric addresses to devices connecting to the internet; the internet would never have taken off.
Any device be it your smartphone, tablet or laptop; when you connect it to the internet, it is provided by an IP address by your internet service provider. There are two types of IP addresses that are assigned to websites and other devices. A website owner may opt to get a static address, which means that the IP address will be fixed and will not change for the lifetime of the website. Website hosting service providers charge a higher rate for assigning static IP addresses.
The second type of IP addresses is known as dynamic addresses. Internet service providers purchase a pool of dynamic addresses as well as static addresses. Whenever a customer of the internet service provider connects to the internet, the provider assigns an available IP address from the pool of available dynamic IP addresses. Dynamic IP addresses cost less than static IP addresses. Every IP address in the pool is shared, and the IP address servers of the internet maintain a database of the domains that are sharing an IP address.
How this works is that when a user requests a site and the request is passed on via the servers on the internet to the web hosting server of that site, and the IP address is in use with another site. The hosting server will provide another available IP address from its pool to the website. Dynamic IP addresses are temporary addresses and not permanent addresses.
When you send a request to open your email, your computer sends the request to another computer which will find your email service provider and forward your request. Your email server will confirm your request and set up the connection. Now you can view your emails. It is a straightforward explanation of how devices communicate with each other on the internet. All the network servers use the IP addresses to find devices and connect them.